孔子如何「播澤在人,廟食茲土」?:論宋代雅樂歌詞、祭文及廟記中的「以孔子為神」

Research output: Contribution to journalArticles

Abstract

唐代釋奠趨於規範,《大唐郊祀錄》祭孔禮儀已有迎神、送神之目,韓、柳撰孔子廟碑謂之「神降其獻」、「苟神之在,曷敢不虔」;到了宋代,在新儒學/理學背景下,宋人祭祀中的「以孔為神」有何特色?本文以宋代釋奠雅樂歌詞、祭文及孔子廟記中的「神」字切入,考察宋代以孔為神的歷史面貌,藉此析論宋人如何詮釋「孔子之靈神」和「祭如在」觀念,主要指出:1.宋代祭孔雅樂歌詞有「祭則受福」、「休嘉之貽」之說,這個現象為五代以前所無,並為後代繼承。反之,唐代祭孔或揉合異端儀式、或祈求私利-這些情況雖尚偶見於宋初,但在慶曆興學以後已極罕有。2.宋代祭孔禮文內容以報功德、興隆儒學、述說孔子「降鑒」為主;另外儘管祭孔屬士大夫行為,但與民間信仰卻暗藏競爭-這在孔子廟記裡尤為明顯。3.慶曆以後,愈趨認為孔子之靈確有感應,如曾鞏說孔子之神「播澤在人,廟食茲土」;理學出現後,朱熹等又藉「氣類相感」觀念解釋「祭如在」。4.宋代祭祀禮文以孔為神在所多見,但其他文體均少見這一概念,這說明祭文話語的封閉性:普遍宋人祭祀時承認孔子的「如在」-甚至認為孔子之神靈可與今人相接-但這種觀念,未曾影響宋人認為儒家以「經文」,而不是以「神明」傳承道統的認識。
This article examines the history of Confucian apotheosis in the Song dynasty, which points out the following: 1. The court music and lyrics of the Confucian ritual practice of the Song dynasty were associated with the concepts that 'blessings are gained through rituals', and 'shen will give good things in return', which did not exist before and were inherited by the later dynasties. The Confucian ritual practice of the Tang dynasty, to the contrary, involved heretic rituals and were performed for private interests - a phenomenon that occurred occasionally in the early Song dynasty, which then became rare after the Qingli education reform. 2. The Confucian ritual texts of the Song dynasty concerned giving thanks to Confucius for his merit and virtue, and describing how Confucius descended from above to oversee the bureaucrats. Also, Confucian rituals that performed by scholar-bureaucrats were in secret competition with the folk religion, which is obviously evidenced by the stone tablet inscriptions at the temples. 3. After Qingli, the belief that Confucius was spiritually connected with the mortals started to gain currency: Zeng Gong once said Confucius 'bestows grace on people and receive regional dedications' in his temples'. By the time Neo-Confucianism came into being, scholars such as Zhu Xi explained the concept of 'performing rituals as if the deity is present' based on the assumption that qi-lei, different kinds of 'vital force', were sensitive to each other. 4. Most of the ritual texts from the Song dynasty regarded Confucius as shen; this conception, however, was unusual in other text types, suggesting that the discourse of the ritual texts was incestuous in nature. The popular conception of Confucius being present at rituals, or his spiritual connection with the mortals, had never affected people in terms of the belief that Confucian Orthodoxy was promoted through the classics but not by the deities. Copyright © 2018 逢甲大學.
Original languageChinese
Pages (from-to)1-32
Journal逢甲人文社會學報
Volume36
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2018

Citation

馮志弘(2018):孔子如何「播澤在人,廟食茲土」?:論宋代雅樂歌詞、祭文及廟記中的「以孔子為神」,《逢甲人文社會學報》,36,頁1-32。

Keywords

  • 雅樂歌詞
  • 祭文
  • 廟記
  • 以孔子為神
  • Court music and lyrics
  • Ritual texts
  • Stone tablet inscriptions
  • Confucius as Shen
  • Alt. title: How did confucius 'Bestow grace on people and receive regional dedications' in his temples?: A study on the concept of ‘confucius as shen' in the court music and lyrics, ritual texts, and stone tablet inscriptions of the Song dynasty