妾身敢作未亡人?:明寧靖王從死五妃史事的性別與社會史分析

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Abstract

臺南市中西區五妃廟紀念明鄭覆亡之際,隨同寧靖王朱術桂自盡的五位姬妾。五妃殉節,自古被視為忠貞節烈的表現,也使其成為熱門的詩作題材。然而,詩作對於五妃的想像與詮釋,又以《臺灣通史》等歷史著作為媒介,逐步匯流成為「歷史」,形成層累造成的五妃形象。本研究結合傳世文獻、考古資料以及史蹟文物,重探五妃殉節史事。在方法論上強調一手史料與二手材料的區別,解構層累造成的五妃形象。在解釋層面挑戰了五妃自願從死的傳統觀點,提出了社會體制與環境壓力也是促成五妃之死的因素。研究重點在於考證明鄭滅亡之時五妃的年齡、寧靖王的繼嗣以及王府家計狀況,推論高齡、國破與家亡的結合,為五妃帶來生存絕境。最後,本文也討論五妃殉節所隱含的生命價值追求、明寧靖王的家庭責任、文人題詠所反映的父權主義思維,以及鄭氏家族與皇明宗室的關係。
Wufei Miao 五妃廟, or the Temple of the Five Concubines in Tainan City, commemorates the five concubines who collectively committed suicide with Prince Ningjing 寧靖王 in the face of the collapse of the Kingdom of Dongning in 1683. Their deeds became an everlasting symbol of chastity and loyalty to both their husband and the dying Ming court. This dramatic event also attracted much attention and gave rise to considerable literary works in subsequent years. Through the historical works such as Taiwan Tongshi (The General History of Taiwan), a layered image of the Five Concubines gradually took shape after a long process of accretion. Combining surviving texts with archaeological sources and fieldwork data, this paper takes a historical approach to study the Five Concubines. It emphasizes the distinction between firsthand historical sources and secondhand literary ones. The purpose is to deconstruct the layered images of the Five Concubines by strictly basing its historical reconstruction on primary sources. In terms of interpretation, this paper puts forward a new perspective which emphasizes the social causes of their deaths. I argue that instead of dying voluntarily, their decision to kill themselves was also affected by the social pressure created by an accidental combination of the patriarchal system and the biological, political, and socio-economic circumstances immediately prior to the collapse of the Kingdom of Dongning. The paper concludes with a discussion on the implications of the Five Concubines' deaths in the pursuit of certain "value of life," the family responsibility of Prince Ningjing, the patriarchal thinking of the literates, and the political relationship between the Zheng family and the exiled Ming royal lineages in Taiwan. Copyright © 2019 成功大學歷史學系.
Original languageChinese
Pages (from-to)43-89
Journal成大歷史學報
Volume56
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2019

Citation

雷晉豪(2019):妾身敢作未亡人?:明寧靖王從死五妃史事的性別與社會史分析,《成大歷史學報》,56,頁43-89。

Keywords

  • 五妃廟
  • 寧靖王
  • 明鄭
  • 性別史
  • 社會史
  • The temple of the five concubines
  • Prince Ningjing
  • Kingdom of Dongning
  • Gender history
  • Social history
  • Alt. title: The unbearable heaviness of widowhood: A reconsideration of the deaths of prince Ningjing's five concubines in the perspectives of gender and social history