在高等教育大眾化進程中追求卓越:重點綜合大學的方略與舉措

龔放, 李軍

Research output: Contribution to journalArticles

Abstract

20世紀90年代末,中國政府在高等教育領域做出了兩個重大戰略決策。其一是“985工程”,旨在“追求卓越”,建設一批具有國際競爭力的大學;其二是1999年起持續多年的高校擴招,加快從精英教育向大眾化階段轉變。加拿大多倫多大學教育學院魯斯‧海霍教授及其課題組所關注的北京大學、南京大學和廈門大學,都是國家重點綜合大學,它們實際上面臨著雙重任務、雙重挑戰,即既要在高等教育大眾化進程中扮演舉足輕重的角色,又要通過“985工程”的實施盡快縮短與世界頂尖大學的差距。本文試圖通過對北大、南大和廈大三個案例的分析,考察它們在這一歷史進程中如何處理好精英教育與大眾化教育的關系,兼顧國家使命與地方需求,平衡“追求卓越”與“維護公平”、“全球化”與“中國特色”、“學科綜合”與“學科特色”等等,進而真切、全面地反映中國高等教育正在發生的重大變革。
Since the late 1990s, Chinese government has implemented two key policies for the development of higher education. The first was launching Project 985, with the purpose of seeking excellence through creating internationally competitive universities. The second was a radical move to a mass system of higher education. In this context, Chinese top universities have faced dual missions and challenges: playing key roles in the expansion process on the one hand and closing the gap between them and top universities around the world through the implementation of Project 985, on the other. It is thus important to know about how these institutions have transformed themselves for excellence through the implementation of these policies. With the three cases of Peking, Nanjing and Xiamen Universities, this paper aims to examine each institutional response and the broad changes that have come about in these top Chinese comprehensive universities. It looks especially at the divergent trajectories these institutions have followed in balancing their elite and mass education functions, their global, national and local missions, the pursuit of excellence alongside of a commitment to equity, efforts at curricular comprehensivization while preserving unique historical strengths, and finally globalization and localization. From two higher education frameworks, one based on epistemological considerations and the other on political philosophy, that are equally important in light of China’s traditions, the paper concludes that Chinese universities will continuously but selectively respond to the national expansion policy with various institutions models of seeking excellence that enable them to contribute to Chinese society and the global community in the future. Copyright © 2011 湖南大學; 中國機械工業教育協會.
Original languageChinese
Pages (from-to)3-16
Journal大學教育科學
Volume2011
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2011

Citation

龔放和李軍(2011):在高等教育大眾化進程中追求卓越:重點綜合大學的方略與舉措,《大學教育科學》,2011(2),頁3-16。

Keywords

  • 重點綜合大學
  • 高等教育大眾化
  • 追求卓越
  • Key comprehensive university
  • Higher education expansion
  • Seeking excellence
  • Alt. title: Seeking excellence in the move to a mass system: Institutional responses of key Chinese comprehensive universities