乾嘉學者經典詮釋的歷史背景與觀念

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Abstract

本文提出「儒學淨化運動」的新觀點,並從此一觀點切入,綜論清初儒學運動興起的歷史背景,及其與乾嘉學者經典詮釋的關係;並論析兩個重要的觀念。
儒學發展史上有許多辯論,儒者希望透過這些辯論來過濾異端邪說,此所謂「儒學淨化運動」。清初儒者經歷亡國之痛,悟到中國之所以兩度亡於外族,原來是因為儒學被異族思想──佛教──侵入了,埋下了亡國的種子。追溯清儒反理學的歷史背景,不難發現和「儒學淨化運動」以及「華夷之辨」有密不可分的關係。《六經》是儒學的核心,也是儒學之所以為儒學而不是釋老之學的最終根本,清儒回歸經典,旨在發明經典中實實在在的道理。
「用」與「器」是清代儒學中兩個重要的觀念。「用」涉及體用的問題。體用問題是儒學史上重大的課題。宋明理學家重視「體」;清儒則重「用」。清初儒者偏重於經世之「用」;乾嘉儒者則重視靜態的經典之「用」。至於清儒論「器」,多指現實界中分殊的事物。這個大方向可從王夫之《周易外傳》中窺見。道與器的關係,是器決定道,而非道決定器。戴震承續此一思想,重視萬物之「分」,在「分」之上再講「合」、「一體」。章學誠思想亦頗受戴震影響。同樣重視「器」,戴震著眼於「器」所昭示的人心同然的深層意義,而延伸思考「理」的問題;章學誠則著眼於典章制度背後,人類文化生活細微的變化。戴章二人的思想,同為重器,但又各有造境。
結論除總結全文外,並認為宋明理學和清代學術各有其關懷,亦各有其思想背景與觀念,二者截然不同,後世治中國學術思想的學者,實不必出奴入主,是此而非彼。
The paper addresses a new viewpoint of the ‘purification movement of Confucianism’, summing up the rise of Confucianism movement in early Qing, and its relationship with Qian-Jia scholars’ interpretations of the Classics, discussing in detail two important concepts.
There are many debates in the historical development of Confucianism, in which scholars hoped to sift out heretical doctrines. This is what I called ‘purification movement of Confucianism’. After experiencing the fall of their nation, the Confucianists of the early Qing realized the reason for China being conquered by foreign clans, was due to the invasion of their ideology – Buddhism. Their critique on Neo-Confucianism was in fact a movement against Buddhism, and also a symbol of fighting against Manchurian authority. Since the “Five Classics” are the base of Confucianism, the scholars from the early to the middle Qing period tried hard to trace back the moral values within the Classics, so that the purity of Confucianism could be proved.
‘Use’用 and ‘matter’器 are two important concepts of Qing Confucianism. While scholars of the Sung and Ming period paid much attention on the ‘ti’體 – the moral and metaphysical origin of life, Qing scholars put much effort on its ‘use’用. Early Qing scholars emphasized on the art of using the classics to achieve social and political evolution, while Qian-Jia scholars studied intensively on the ‘use’ of the Classics. Qing scholars’ discourses of ‘matter’ mostly refer to their emphasized on the individuality of ‘things’ in the real world. They argued that only when we understood the principle of ‘individuality’, could we understand the real meaning of ‘unity’. This paper also discusses the philosophical relationship between Zhang Xuecheng and Dai Zhen, especially their opinion on ‘matter’. Copyright © 2001 臺灣大學中國文學系.
Original languageChinese
Pages (from-to)241-281
Journal臺大中文學報
Volume15
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2001

Citation

鄭吉雄(2001):乾嘉學者經典詮釋的歷史背景與觀念,《臺大中文學報》,15,頁241-281。

Keywords

  • 乾嘉
  • 儒學
  • 經典詮釋
  • 儒釋之辨
  • 儒道之辨
  • 清代
  • 經學
  • 戴震
  • 章學誠
  • Qian-Jia
  • Confucianism
  • Classical interpretation
  • Qing dynasty
  • Dai Zhen
  • Zhang Xue-cheng
  • Alt. title: On the historical background and ideas of the classical interpretation of the Qing scholars