中文句子閱讀中語義信息對眼動預視效應的影響

王穗蘋, 佟秀紅, 楊錦綿, 冷英

Research output: Contribution to journalArticles

Abstract

採用句子為閱讀材料,變化句子中一個單字詞形成語義連貫與語義違背兩種實驗條件,通過兩個眼動實驗探討中文句子閱讀中預視效應的產生是否受語義資訊的影響。實驗一運用自然閱讀範式,考察當語義連貫與違背兩類資訊被讀者直接注視時,讀者眼動模式的變化。結果發現,在語義連貫與違背兩種條件下,讀者的眼動模式在目標位置立即產生差異,違背條件下首次注視時間更長,說明中文句子理解中語義加工可以進行得十分即時。實驗二運用邊界技術,使實驗一的語義連貫與違背兩類關鍵字只呈現在預視位置上,當讀者的注視點越過邊界時,兩類預視字均變為另一個與句子意義連貫的目標字。結果發現,語義違背預視條件下,讀者對預視位置將進行更長時間的加工。上述結果表明,中文句子閱讀過程中,語義資訊可以對預視效應產生影響。
One of the important findings in reading research is the preview benefit: in addition to the currently fixated character information from the character to the right of the fixation located in the perceptual span was extracted and used in reading. Fixation durations were shorter when the appropriate visual information about the currently fixated character was available on the previous fixation than when it was inappropriate, suggesting that some preprocessing of the current character (referred as character n) occurred when the eyes were fixating the previous character (referred as character n-1).
In research on alphabetic scripts, it was generally agreed that the preview benefit can result from orthographic and phonological processes. But it was unclear whether semantic information can be extracted from the preview word and produces a preview effect. Albeit some positive evidence, most of the western studies did not support a semantic preview effect. Further, as most studies on this topic have been conducted in alphabetic languages, it is unclear whether the same conclusion applies to non alphabetic languages such as Chinese which differ from alphabetic languages in many important aspects.
The present study examined whether semantic preview effect can occur in Chinese sentence reading.
In Experiment 1, to examine the immediacy effect of Chinese sentence reading, Chinese participants were instructed to read 44 sentences each containing a target character located in the middle of a sentence, either semantically consistent or inconsistent with the sentence context while their eye movements were recorded.
Results of experiment 1 showed that first pass processing time was significantly longer at the target character position for the inconsistent target than for the consistent target. This consistency effect indicated that Chinese readers were able to detect the inconsistency right at the target position.
In Experiment 2, an eye-monitoring procedure with the boundary paradigm was adopted to determine whether the semantically violated information located at the preview position (character n) could be detected when the eyes were fixating character n-1. The stimulus and design were similar to that in Experiment 1, except that the target, either a consistent or inconsistent character, was presented in the preview position when character n-1 was fixated and it turned into another character which was always consistent with the sentence context when character n was fixated.
Results of experiment 2 showed that first pass fixation was significantly longer at the critical regions for the semantic inconsistent condition relative to the consistent condition, indicating that the semantic information of character n was extracted when character n-1 was fixated.
To sum up, the present results indicate that semantic processing in Chinese sentence reading can occur immediately. Even for characters located in the preview position, their semantic information can be extracted and used. Copyright © 2009 中國心理學會;中國科學院心理研究所.
Original languageChinese
Pages (from-to)220-232
Journal心理學報
Volume41
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2009

Citation

王穗蘋、佟秀紅、楊錦綿和冷英(2009):中文句子閱讀中語義信息對眼動預視效應的影響,《心理學報》,41(3),頁220-232。

Keywords

  • 邊界技術
  • 預視效應
  • 語義信息
  • 即時性
  • 眼動
  • Preview effect
  • Semantic information
  • Immediacy
  • Eye movement
  • Alt. title: Semantic codes are obtained before word fixation in Chinese sentence reading: Evidence from eye movements