中國教育在改革開放四十年的發展及挑戰

Research output: Contribution to journalArticles

Abstract

改革開放40年來,中國各級教育發展持續壯大。在鄧小平提出教育要面向現代化、面向世界、面向未來的道路上,國家教育在改革初期的工作重點是推動兩基工程,及至在本世紀初於義務教育階段徹底實行免費,以推動全國教育現代化。自上世紀末擴招後,中國高等教育由精英教育轉向大眾化教育。面向世界方面,從派遣留學生的決策起,中國留學生不斷增加,至今成為全球留學生的最大生源國。當前中國特色社會主義進入新時代,教育的主要矛盾表現為人民群眾接受優質教育的需求與教育發展不平衡不充分之間的矛盾。面向未來,內地要在不同的教育環節深化改革開放,其一要全面落實中國學生發展核心素養,並要加快一流大學和一流學科建設,也要超前規劃好職業教育和終身學習的發展;當然,更要培養高素質、專業化、創新型教師,引領青少年為實現中國夢而努力學習和奮鬥,並實現從人口大國向人力資源大國的發展。在面向世界方面,全國教育界要有文化自信,在面對國際文化的交流和踫撞中,認識到優秀傳統文化是中國文化的軟實力;並培育內地青年與各地青年一道構建人類命運共同體,共同面對人類在科技發展和生存環境的挑戰。
In the 40 years of reform and opening up, the development of education at all levels in China has continued to grow. On Deng Xiaoping’s proposal that education should facing to modernization, the world, and the future, the focus of education of PRC in the early stage of reform is to promote the two-base project, and to implement free education in the compulsory stage at the beginning of this century, in order to promote the modernization of education throughout the country. Since the enrollment expansion at the end of the last century, China’s higher education has gone from elite education to mass education. Facing the world, from the decision to send international students, the number of study abroad Chinese students has increased, and China has become the largest source of international students in global students. At present, socialism with Chinese characteristics has entered a new era. The main contradiction in education is the contradiction between the people’s demand for quality education and the unbalanced development of education. Facing the future, the mainland should deepen reform and opening up in different part of educational system. First, PRC should fully implement the core literacy of Chinese students’ development, and accelerate the construction of first-class universities and first-class disciplines, as well as plan ahead for the development of vocational education and lifelong learning. Of course, it is necessary to train high-quality, professional and innovative teachers to lead young people to study hard and strive for the realization of the Chinese dream. So that, the country can realize the development from a populous country to a human resource country. In the facing to the world, the mainland educators should have cultural self-confidence. In the face of international cultural exchanges and rashes, it is recognized that excellent traditional culture is the soft power of Chinese culture. And cultivate mainland young to build a community of human destiny together with the youth everywhere to meet the challenges of human beings in the development of technology and the living environment. Copyright © 2018 by author and Hans Publishers Inc.
Original languageChinese
Pages (from-to)703-710
Journal教育進展
Volume8
Issue number6
Early online dateNov 2018
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018

Citation

胡少偉(2018):中國教育在改革開放四十年的發展及挑戰,《教育進展》,8(6),頁703-710。

Keywords

  • 中國教育改革
  • 改革開放的教育發展
  • 中國教育的挑戰
  • China’s education reform
  • Reform and opening up of educational development
  • The challenge of China’s education
  • Alt. title: The development and challenges of China’s education in the 40 years of reform and opening up