中國古代形上學中數字觀念的發展

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Abstract

本文從先秦時期數字觀念思想的發生歷史考察,指出數字觀念出現很早,而且非單一來源。《易》占可能是已知最早的源頭,至於春秋時期而大行。戰國晚期數字觀念延伸至於四季、五方、顏色等各種自然界事物,形成了繁複而獨特的宇宙秩序。西漢數字觀念繼續朝向神祕化、複雜化的方向發展,以卦氣觀念為核心的思想影響所及,無處不在。其後儒學經歷清談理論和佛教思想的衝擊。般若學「空性」觀念在理論上摧毀存有世界的一切意義。儒家在回應佛教思想的漫長過程裡,逐漸感到舊有數字觀念只注意存有層面的限制。於是宋明儒者努力地試著一方面運用數字描述形質世界的秩序和意義,一方面又設法 超越數字的限制,處處強調數字所表述的形上本體的普遍性和超越性。這種試圖兩面兼顧的努力,在劉牧、邵雍的《易》圖詮釋中顯露無遺。然而以數字表達抽象觀念的限制是不易突破的。它較易於表達「有」的層次,較難觸及「無」的層次。儒家原相信一個存有的、有秩序也有意義的世界,數字觀念適切地替這樣的思路服務。
另方面,過去講思想史的學者,每強調漢宋不同。其實從漢到宋是一個過程,整個思想史也是一個過程。沒有漢代哲學對數字觀念的建構,宋代理學家也無法建構其數字觀念的世界;沒有佛教思想的刺激,儒者也不會那麼認真地思考數字觀念的限制。
The impact of the notions of numbers existed as a variety of forms in different schools and different texts in Chinese intellectual history. The numbers in the ancient divination recorded in the Yijing (The Book of Changes) may be the earliest origin. During the Chunqiu (Spring and Autumn) period, different schools of thought manipulated numbers to construct their cosmological order. Every being and substances were classified into categories and tagged with different numbers. At the late of the Warring State period, the notion of numbers merge into the “yinyang wuxing” theory (theory of the negative and positive power and the five phases) and were correspond with directions, seasons, colors and so forth.
In the Han period, mysticism arose and the notions of numbers turned to become even more complicated. The “gua-qi” thought (the natural order of the 64 hexagram corresponding to the 24 solar terms and 365.25 days) expanded the scope of the number system. Philosophers started to interpret the life length of the universe and the globe. Later when Buddhism was introduced into China, the idea of “emptiness” imposed great impact to Chinese philosophers who had been claiming the ultimate meaning of being. To respond to the idea of “emptiness”, Confucian philosophers of the Song period started to readjust their notions of numbers. On the one hand, they continued to classified every being within time and space and everything is countable, on the other they claimed that the classified universe is immense and uncountable. Some of them, like the great philosopher Shao Yong, absorbed the theory of the Han philosophers and derived a new theory of universal calendar. Copyright © 2005 國立臺灣師範大學國際與社會科學學院.
Original languageChinese
Pages (from-to)137-174
Journal臺灣東亞文明研究學刊
Volume2
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2005

Citation

鄭吉雄(2005):中國古代形上學中數字觀念的發展,《臺灣東亞文明研究學刊》,2(2),頁137-174。

Keywords

  • 形上學
  • 數字
  • 思想史
  • 象數
  • 方位
  • 儒學
  • Metaphysics
  • Numbers
  • Intellectual history
  • Direction
  • Confucianism
  • Alt. title: The notions of numbers in traditional Chinese metaphysics and it’s impact