中古文獻所見語氣詞“那”的性質:再論近代漢語語氣詞“那”的來源

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Abstract

現代學者大都認爲近代漢語語氣詞“那”在魏晉時期已經産生,筆者(朱慶之1991)根據中古佛經中的大量“那”“耶”異文資料認爲,中古時代寫作“那”的句末疑問語氣詞其實都是“耶”的形誤字,其讀音仍然同“耶”,並非語言中有一個讀音爲“那”的新語氣詞。二十多年來,陸續有一些商榷的文字發表。批評者回避筆者的兩個關鍵疑問,另闢蹊徑,試圖從論證“那”在中古有表示肯定語氣的用法來維持舊説。本文將就此作進一步的討論:除了用“耶”同樣具有表示肯定語氣的用法來證明批評者的立論不能成立外,還運用漢語俗文字學的理論來對“耶—那”混用現象的性質作新出的解釋。在中古時代,“那”除了“本職工作”以外,還是“耶”的俗字。文章的目的是釐清事實,並喚起研究者的進一步興趣。
Scholars today generally believe that the mood particle na(那) mainly used in Early Mandarin had already appeared in Middle Chinese although there are a few findings reported. Based on the discovery of the large number of na used in the Medieval Buddhist scriptures which usually were in other editions replaced with ye(耶), a very popular mood particle in Classical Chinese, and the characters of both look very similar, the author (1991) suggested that, those nas in Middle Chinese texts are actually the writing mistakes of ye but not that there was a new mood particle na in Middle Chinese. Over the past 20 years, there have been some critical comments on this point. These discussions avoided answering the two key questions raised by the author, and tried to prove the traditional opinion in a new path. This paper will further discuss this open problem, and try give a new explanation of the feature of the na, based on the theory of the Chinese Vulgar Character Studies(漢語俗文字學) that na is actually the valgar style of ye in Middle Chinese texts. Copyright © 2018 中國社會科學院語言研究所.
Original languageChinese (Simplified)
Title of host publication《歷史語言學研究》
Editors 中國社會科學語言研究所《歷史語言學研究》編輯部
Place of Publication北京
Publisher商務印書館
Pages159-199
Volume第十二輯
ISBN (Print)7100167558, 9787100167550
Publication statusPublished - 20 Sep 2018

Citation

朱慶之(2018):中古文獻所見語氣詞“那”的性質:再論近代漢語語氣詞“那”的來源,輯於中國社會科學語言研究所《歷史語言學研究》編輯部編《歷史語言學研究》第十二輯,(頁159-199),北京,商務印書館。

Keywords

  • 語氣詞“那”
  • 語氣詞“耶”
  • 形誤字
  • 俗字
  • 漢語俗文字學
  • 中古漢語
  • 近代漢語
  • Mood particle Na(那)
  • Mood particle ye(耶)
  • Distorted characters
  • Vulgar characters
  • Chinese vulgar character studies
  • Middle Chinese
  • Early Mandarin
  • Alt. title: On the feature of the mood particle na (那) in the middle Chinese literature: Further discussion on the source of mood particle na in early Mandarin