蘇軾號「雪堂」，是北宋文學、藝術、宗教融合的推手。黃州貶謫期間，「如來藏思想」成為其安頓心靈、指導文藝的資源之一。蘇詩的宋、清兩代註者號稱「百家」，但儒家學者的視野有時會限制闡釋的邊界。日本室町時代，「五山僧」萬里集九撰著東坡抄物《天下白》，以漢字為主而輔以假名，歷時五年，遍註蘇軾的全部詩作。他擁有藏主、詩僧的修養和立場，因還俗而懺悔，與蘇軾的某些知識與心態，不期然形成共構。他視蘇軾為「雪山大士」，視其黃州書齋雪堂為「雪山道場」，為探索蘇軾文藝、佛學的交融提供了新視角。然學界未諳此註，研究極少，更從未立足至關重要的宗教立場。本案考察蘇軾雪詩、雪畫的如來藏意涵，可探索「文學藝術思想史」的新路徑；凸顯《天下白》相較宋、清及早期五山蘇詩註釋傳統的個性，可拓寬「東亞經典闡釋學」的視野；藉助萬里的漢詩文集《梅花無盡藏》，考察其隱居「梅花無盡藏」草庵，為地方僧俗講授蘇詩的行跡，可豐富日本漢學史的認知。 The Northern Song dynasty scholar-official and literary figure Su Shi (1037-1101) is one of imperial China’s most renowned polymaths, and is arguably the most prominent driver of the distinctive trend of amalgamating literature, art and religion. His creative achievements were particularly profound in relation to the theme of bringing together poetry, art and Buddhism, where his contributions have a special place in the history of the wider Sinosphere. Nonetheless, not all of Su’s achievements in this regard have been heralded, let alone well understood. Su was demoted and sent into quasi-exile in Huangzhou from 1080 to 1084, and it can be argued that during this low period in his life, his attempt to seek solace in tathāgatagarbha thought had a substantial impact on his literary and artistic works. However, this Buddhist influence on Su Shi’s compositions has been little discussed among the many Song dynasty and Qing dynasty periods Chinese criticisms of his work, perhaps in part due to their authors’ strong affiliations with Confucianism, this tradition’s investment in the literary depiction of the archetype of the loyal official, and the strong association this tradition shares with depictions of the malaise of exile and righteous indignation. A very different perspective of these works, however, can be found in a commentary written in Chinese by the poet-monk Banri Shūkyū (1428-1507?), who flourished in Japan during the Muromachi period (1336-1573). Banri’s alternative perspective, presented in his Tenka haku (The Brightest of the World), was informed by his training as a Japanese Zen monk, scholar and poet, his exposure to different traditions of exegesis and training in art and literature, and personal experiences that in some ways echoed with those of Su Shi, including Banri’s experiencing regret and dejection at being compelled, when middle-aged, to renounce his vows and return to lay life. While Banri’s work is the source of unique and arguably compelling insights on intersections between literature, art and religion in Su Shi’s writings during and subsequent to the latter’s exile in Huangzhou in particular, it has hitherto received scarce attention in late imperial period Chinese commentarial texts and in contemporary scholarly literature. My study proposes to engage in an in-depth analysis of the Tenka haku, in addition to Banri’s own poetry collection, the Baiga mujinzō (The Inexhaustible Storehouse of Plum Blossoms), in order to cast a new light on the influence of tathāgata-garbha thought on Su Shi’s literary and artistic works, and bring attention to the distinctive Japanese tradition of criticism/commentary and poetic mimicry of Su Shi and other renowned Tang and Song dynasty poets that began to take on new forms from the Muromachi period.
|Effective start/end date||01/01/22 → 31/12/23|
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